Lung Cancer emerges as an abnormal occurrence in a man’s cell. In a normal, healthy body, a system of checks and maintains the growth of the cells. But, disturbance of this system results in uncontrolled dividing or proliferation cage that creates a mass called a tumor. Tumors are benign and malignant. So, when you say cancer, thoughts of a malignant tumor. A malignant tumor grows aggressively and attacking the other tissues in the body. Can enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then to other places in the body generate new tumor. Contrary to this, a benign tumor may remove and prevent it does not spread. Lung cancer is one of the most dangerous because is expanding rapidly and metastasize. Places that are most metastasized common are the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bones, but it can be any other part of the body. Can occur in any part of the lung, but most arise from the epithelial cells, the cells lining the large and small airways (bronchi and bronchioles). So, we called and bronchial cancer.

The main function of the lung is the exchange of gasses, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Every time we breathe in, the lungs open and collect oxygen, and every time we exhale, the lungs are expensive and emits carbon dioxide. Air enters the lungs through the bronchi arising from the trachea. The bronchi branch into smaller airways, the bronchioles, which end in tiny bubbles known as alveoli.
Alveoli are small, spongy waters where gas exchange. The lungs and the inner side of the chest are covered with a thin layer of tissue called the pleura. We must say that lung cancer can arise from the pleura. This is an aggressive type of tumor, which is difficult for the lens and called mesothelioma.


 How common is lung cancer?

It is most often a disease of older people. In people over 60 years more diagnosed and less in people younger than 45 years. Lung cancer has increased as a result of frequent tobacco use and in both sexes.

In the US, lung cancer surpassed breast cancer as the most common cause of cancer deaths in women.


What causes lung cancer?

There are several factors that cause lung cancer. We will mention a few of them which are the main. Smoking is a risk factor that is linked to lung cancer. What is the number of cigarettes smoked and the time spent in smoke, so the greater the harm to health? Tobacco smoke contains over 4 000 chemical compounds, of which many are carcinogenic. Two basic cancerous things in tobacco smoke are chemicals known as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide is also one of the harmful ingredients. Cigars contain nicotine, which at the entry to the body speed up the heart rate and increase blood pressure. Nicotine acts as the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which creates a strong addiction to cigarettes. This is why it is so hard to quit once it starts. Smoking represents an addiction like people who take drugs and become addicts. Nicotine affects that reduce the amount of oxygen that can reach the heart. If in case the flow of blood is much less, one part of the heart muscle will die and be resulting in heart attacks. Quitting, smoking can reduce the risk of lung cancer. In former smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer is equal to the risk in non-smokers after about 15 g. Of non-smoking.

 Passive smoking

Passive smokers are people who do not smoke but are in the vicinity of those who smoke. Inhalation of tobacco smoke by non-smokers who live or work with smokers increases their risk factor for lung cancer.

Asbestos fibers as a risk factor

These are fibers that can last a lifetime. Appear in people who work on jobs that are a source of asbestos fibers. Today has a ban on the use of asbestos in many countries. Those who work with asbestos are at the greatest risk factor for health and getting lung cancer.


Radon is an inert gas that is the natural decomposition of uranium. The cause for the occurrence of cancer, as with exposure to asbestos. Uranium decays into more decay products that emit different types of radiation. Radon is invisible and odorless. Can get out of the soil and enter homes through cracks in foundations, pipes, drains, or other openings.

Family predisposition

In the development of lung cancer, a major factor can be genetic. Recent studies have shown that lung cancer occurs in smokers and non-smokers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Identified a small region of the genome (DNA), which contains the genes that increase susceptibility to lung cancer in smokers. For that, we can say that there is a genetic connection which someone who had the disease of lung cancer.


 Air pollution

Most air pollutants are traffic, industry, and power plants, which increase the likelihood of developing lung cancer. Exposure to polluted air can carry the risk of developing lung cancer like that of passive smoking.

 What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?

The symptoms are different and specific for detecting. It all depends on the type and in which the stage of warning signs of lung cancer are not always present and cannot identify. But, let us explain who they are and how to recognize them. In 25 percent of cases, cancer is discovered with routine controls. In these cases, there are no signs and symptoms.

Symptoms related to lung cancer;

Symptoms such as a cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood (hemoptysis), appear at the lung cancer growth, and invasion of the surrounding tissue and the lung, which can interfere with breathing. It may experience pain in the shoulder when he caught a nerve. Also, can happen paralysis of the vocal cords and hoarse. If are a big obstructed airway may cause the collapse of part of the lung and infection (abscesses, pneumonia) in the obstructed area.

Symptoms related to metastasis;

Cancer that has spread to places, can cause severe pain. Also to the pain and can cause a variety of neurological symptoms.

Paraneoplastic symptoms;

In this case, there is a syndrome that produces a parathyroid hormone that results in elevated levels of calcium in the blood. The most common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with SCLC is the production of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) leading to excessive secretion of cortisol from the adrenal glands (Cushing’s syndrome).

Non-specific symptoms;

These are weight loss, weakness, and fatigue. Psychological symptoms such as depression and changes in swings are also common.


 When do you consult a doctor?

  • Be sure to consult a doctor when it occurs
  • Acute persistent cough or deteriorate a chronic cough
  • Blood in the sputum or sputum
  • Persistent bronchitis or recurrence of respiratory infections
  • Chest pain
  • Unexplained weight loss and/or fatigue
  • Difficulty breathing

How is lung cancer diagnosed?

Thanks to advanced technology and a multitude of scientific achievements, here are a few ways how doing it diagnose lung cancer; X-rays of the lungs are the most common first diagnostic step. The X-ray can detect suspicious areas in the lungs, but cannot determine whether it is malignant areas. In particular, calcified nodules in the lungs or benign tumors called hematomas X-ray images.

Using CT (computed tomography) scans the chest, abdomen, or brain and also examines the situation in these organs. CT is a procedure that uses radiation and a computer that combines many images generating a cross-section of the human body. CT can get an accurate picture of patients.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. The images resulting from the MRI are quite detailed and can detect small changes in the structure of the body.

These are just a few ways with which they can detect cancer. There are many ways of preventing and treating. For that reason, that when you notice the slightest change or chest pain, you go to your doctor and do the most necessary tests, in order to remove all doubts about the disease called cancer.


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