DEPRESSION

OLDEST PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS

Definition

This is a disease of our time. There is no man who has never been in a situation that he had this disease in their hands. Everyone sometimes feels sad and unhappy, lonely or exhausted.

Depression is a strong feeling of sadness. Occurs after some kind of loss or regret for something. Its main characteristic is that lasts longer.

Human is to be grieving for someone in your life. But in a larger number of people, such a state passes quickly. However, if grief and sadness persist and again, then it becomes the word of depressions.

The concept of depression comes from the Latin word Deprimere. This means to press, squeeze or dent. Is as old as human civilization. It is one of the oldest illnesses described in medicine.

Depression is more than a disease. It is a mental disorder that requires serious treatment. It is the largest deadly disease in psychiatry. This is so because about 15 percent of depressed people commit suicide. Therefore must be approached carefully with a depressed person to understand and actualize

It is characterized by withdrawal patients themselves, depression, decline of will and energy, insomnia, loss of appetite, surrender to dark thoughts, worries and self, slow flow of thinking, hopelessness, and helplessness. Because of these characteristics, must be approached a doctor and start treatment. And it must have in mind that that depression is a treatable illness. But it requires more time and patience from the patients.

 

CAUSES OF DEPRESSION

Can not say exactly what are the main factors for the occurrence of depression. This is because there are more. As the disease is very complex and occurs for many different reasons. But it is known that consists of a set of organized forms of reaction to various events. Which is associated with good or negative experiences. And for these reasons, we can say that there are two groups of causes: internal and external.

Internal causes are called “predisposition.” she or inherited or occurring at an early age. The main characteristic of her is weakness in transmitting information to the brain. Therefore, appear bad feelings. This can be explained by the well; bad and negative things, the brain recognizes as a normal process. Therefore comes the appearance of depression. And therefore appear beliefs such as: “I’ll never be better,” “I cannot”, “nothing makes sense ”. Then the person with depression feels malaise, fatigue, with less life energy. And at the same time experience of hopelessness, despair, loss of any initiative.

Because of all this, predisposition is very important, the external factor. As an internal factor, directly related to the genome responsible for serotonin receptors and paths. In addition to the shaft that connects the hypothalamus-pituitary and adrenal and stress hormone cortisol.

Often can be seen as a phenomenon in people who are naturally more emotional. They are timid, lower self-esteem, weight endure injustice and criticism. So ” predisposition ” with these people, appears as the main cause of depression.

External causes can be most of them. Usually associated with some kind of loss. These losses are occurring and in the family, in his career, in the value system; the quality of their own lives. And these losses hard to bear and create pain in people with depression.

And the symptoms as a means for the occurrence of depression are different.

SYMPTOMS

Some we have already mentioned, but most of them will be mentioned for easier discovery of the disease. Here’s what those symptoms;

  • Bad mood and lack of self-confidence
  • Guilt
  • Constant concern and expectation of the worst
  • You cannot sleep or you sleep too much
  • Tasks that were once easy now you hard (lethargy)
  • You feel hopeless and helpless
  • Concentration has declined, and you have trouble making decisions
  • You have lost interest in almost all activities
  • You cannot control your negative thoughts as much as we try
  • You lose your appetite or can not stop eating
  • Difficulty in making decisions, indecision
  • Have reduced sexual desire or have completely lost
  • You have a slow and irritable
  • In severe cases of complete indifference to everything
  • Do not get satisfaction from life
  • You have thoughts that life is not worth living (if this is the case, seek help immediately)

There are also physical symptoms such as;

  • Tiredness, lack of energy, and decreased sexual desire
  • Unexplained back pain, headaches, or feeling that your whole body hurts
  • Constipation
  • Changes in the menstrual cycle
  • Clumsiness (dropping objects out of the hands)
  • Slowness in movement and speech

And all these symptoms can appear gradually or all at once. It all depends on the cause of depression. Sometimes takes time to detect symptoms, but sometimes it happens slowly. Because most people think that some of these symptoms, part of their character. But will not admit that they have problems with their mental health. So they do not want to seek professional help.

It is important that the symptoms when they are detected, treated with the disease itself.

 

HOW BECOMES DEPRESSION?

At the occurrence of depression, the chemical reaction in the brain is disturbed. Then hormone serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine are out of balance. This is because the system control stress is disturbed. He causes a strong chemical balance disorder of the nerve cells. Because there is a lack of drive, loss of appetite and sleep, difficulty concentrating, and other symptoms of depression.

This state comes from the interaction of various factors. The main factors are the loss of a beloved person or situation chronic overload. There may be mentioned, and social factors that require adjustment to new circumstances. But all of these factors differently influence the occurrence of depression in each patient. In many cases, depression appearances out of the blue. And in some, it happens gradually during one period. Therefore, it is necessary for the performance, depression, consistent to treat.

Depressive episodes

When talking about a depressive episode, we can say that the course of life may appear several times. It means to be repeated as a phenomenon with all the symptoms. Just to mention a few of them; concentration, thinking, lack of concentration; obliviousness; negative thoughts about the future; self-blame and low self-esteem; preoccupation with diseases. When any of these symptoms are repeated within two weeks, every day, then it is the depressive episode.

According to the severity of the clinical picture, the episode can be mild, moderate or severe. And all of these aforementioned episodes, have different symptoms. So that the mood of the person is different. But when a single individual occasionally and euphoric mood that lasts two weeks or more, then it is a bipolar disorder.

 

Depression accompanied by anxiety

Anxiety (anxiously) behavior occurs in some people, not in every person who is sick of depression. In the case when it occurs and anxiety, then the leaflets both. Many people with anxiety a sense of agitation, hard lip, to anxiety. Among them appear various disorders such as;

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder; is characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts or feelings. Basically, they have forced thoughts.
  • Panic disorder; characterized by panic attacks, where people have a sudden rush of fear, accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath, and a feeling of being trapped.
  • Social phobia; characterized by the avoidance that occurs in many people.

 

Special forms of depression

Based on a variety of symptoms can distinguish different forms of depression. As one of the most important, we can mention ” hidden ” – disguised depression. Like symptoms, we can mention morning fatigue, weight loss, despair, loss of libido, and interest. But in some people, it can be manifest as irritability, aggression, anger, or increased alcohol consumption.

Actually, physical ailments can be so pronounced that their psychological causes are only very difficult to detect. In this case, we are talking about masked (covert) depression.

 

BURN-OUT Syndrome

This is a syndrome that occurs from the business load. Is characterized by the loss of energy, decreased productivity, indifference, cynicism, and discontent. These symptoms occur because of long-standing and very high commitment and above-average achievements. When this form of depression is often present and vague physical complaints. These are increased, sweating, dizziness, headaches, problems of the digestive tract, and muscular aches. Thus mentioning the symptoms, we can say that burnout syndrome is the man to develop in a very severe form of depression.

 

Depression in later years of life

This is a type of depression that occurs after 65 years of life. In older patients, depression may be easier to spot and predict. Older patients often keep quiet about depressive symptoms. And therefore begin to be angry at everything and anything. Often complain of physical ailments. And so often and physical ailments cannot identify such symptoms. but maybe an indication of depression.

Seasonal depression

Answering the most frequently in late autumn or winter. When the days are dark and cold, the mood is usually changed and becomes bad. In some cases can cause serious and even fatal diseases. The cause for this is the seasonal reduced perception light. This leads to disruption of the chemical balance of the brain. So formed and seasonal depression.

 

Postpartum depression

This is a type of depression that occurs in 10-15% of pregnant women. Occurs after the first day of childbirth and can last for a longer period. Is characterized by the so-called “days of crying.” This plot can last from several hours to several days. Affecting about 50% of mothers and have a characteristic of the disease.

“Properly treated depression can now be cured.”

 

TREATMENT

Depression is a mental condition that can a great impact on the overall general health of people. But although it does not seem depressed minds, depression is a very treatable disease. The first step in treating depression is the correct diagnosis. After that, the main methods of treatment are medications and psychotherapy.

When reversing on by drugs, we must say that there is a wide range of antidepressants. But used for psychotherapy or going to a psychologist for advice all you need. Therefore the surest way to a cure, going to a psychiatrist or psychologist.

It was concerned that the word therapy, patients should regularly, patiently, and long enough to be treated.

The treatment of depression takes place in three stages:

  • Acute treatment:
  • Alleviates symptoms and reduces pain.
  • Duration: 4-8 weeks.

Maintenance therapy states:

  • Prevents regression through a further stabilization phase of the disease without
  • Symptoms. Only when the result of this therapy for six months
  • No longer perform symptoms can talk about full
  • Healing. Duration: at least six months.

Preventing regression:

  • Prevent getting the disease after complete healing
  • And the development of a new episode of illness.
  • Duration: from one to several years.

 

Psychotherapy

The basic method of treatment of depression is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is a key method for removal and dealing with stress. The best method and are proven behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using this method, we can say that it boils down to finally cure. One, in the long run, reduces the risk of regression. In these modern modes of therapy, the focus of treatment is placed primarily on finding solutions and mobilizing resources.

Feelings, thoughts, experiences, actions, all mutually influence each other and act on our body functions. Therefore psychotherapy best way to remove all the interference. Using it is given to support for starting with activities that improve mood. So it is the best psychotherapy method to achieve positive thoughts and feelings. But no doctor assistance can not reach the results. In conversations with him and giving certain activities, leads to the improvement of the patient. Because depression is forcing all around looking bleak. But psychotherapy helps us slowly mastered this way of looking at things.

 

Interpersonal psychotherapy

This type of therapy is characterized by interpersonal, interpersonal relations. This means that relations between people can significantly contribute to the development of depression. Such examples of the occurrence of depression are the death of a close person or disassembly of the partners, mobbing the workplace, job loss, and retirement or permanent quarrels with relatives. The goals of interpersonal psychotherapy to alleviate depressive symptoms and improve interpersonal relationships in the private and business environment.

 

Elements of psychotherapy

We have already mentioned that managing stress basic foundation of psychotherapy. In many cases, great success was achieved with psychoanalytical or deep psychological therapy. There is basic importance to children’s development. The starting point is to analyze the effects of the first years of life leave marks on our psyche. Then it works on recognizing and processing hidden or suppressed conflicts that the patient has.

There is also another element of psychotherapy, systemic (family) therapy. There is given a focus on the group (system) in which the person lives. This system can be a married couple, family, friends, or work. So this problem can be found and processed with the focus of interpersonal and social aspects.

 

Behavior therapy

During life, everyone learns for himself the typical patterns of behavior, attitudes, and emotional reactions. Whether related to depression, there are a number of typical patterns of thinking and behavior. Together with the heavy load situations of chronic stress and can lead to illness. Therefore, the therapy is very important and significant. Buy it, specifically to access and review the problematic patterns of behavior, attitudes, and ways of thinking. Therefore, the aim of this therapy is the ability to successfully design and satisfactory social connections and deal with their own feelings.

 

Treatment with drugs

The primary goal of drug therapy is to improve the state of the depressed person and create a foundation for psychotherapy. In essence, antidepressants help for self-help. This means that their action through normalizing the balance of neurotransmitters helps re-mobilization of forces of self-healing. But more specifically to explain that their operation is based on the principle of boosting levels of the hormone serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. So the key of these antidepressants to normalize stress hormone activity.

Side effects of these drugs are possible. But to select the most important antidepressant treatment history and individual symptoms. Should be known that antidepressants do not increase the risk of suicide.

All these facts about antidepressants are very important for the proper selection. So should visit a psychiatrist and use it to get the right medication.

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