Urinary tract infections pose a serious health problem. And are among the most common infections. They can be very painful and inconvenient, but usually very successful cures. Women are particularly prone to urinary tract infections. That is because their urinary tube is shorter than those of the male. Therefore it is easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. That is why every other woman will have a urinary infection at least once in her life.
What is …..?
It is the urinary bladder inflammation and the lower part of the urinary tract. The infection occurs when microorganisms, usual bacteria from the digestive tract, stay on the urinary tract and begin to multiply. The most common cause is bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is usually found in the large intestine. Due to the immediate proximity of this bacterium, they easily migrate from their normal place of residence to the vagina and the outer urinary tract. There they multiply and spread to the bladder, upper urinary tracts to the kidneys, causing urinary infections.
Urinary tract infections are also caused by sexually transmitted microorganisms such as chlamydia and mycoplasma.
Many microorganisms can cause infection:
- Usually, the triggers of Gram are negative: – Escherichia coli – the most common cause, about 80% – Proteus mirabilis – Klebsiella
- Other, less common organisms, G + organisms – Staphylococcus saprophyticus (coagulase negative) – 10-15% infections in young women – Enterococcus – often in patients with urolithiasis or after intervention
- Others – can be overlooked by the existence of a negative culture of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Herpes Simplex Virus, Candida species, Trichomonas vaginalis, Tuberculosis, Candida albicans
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Symptoms of urinary tract infection do not occur in all patients, but most of them manifest at least some of them:
- frequent need for urination, night urination, – difficulty in retaining urine,
- painful burning sensation in the area of the bladder or urethra when urinating,
- despite the need and feel “urgency,” urination is minimal,
- a sense of incomplete emptying of the bladder,
- in men waiting for the onset of urination and a poor jet of urine,
- The possible feeling of weakness, fatigue, tiredness, exhaustion, as well as feeling pain even when not urinated, – unpleasant pressure above the pubic bone, the tension in the rectum occurs in men,
- urine may have a milky or blurred appearance, even reddish if there is blood presence,
- an intense smell of urine,
- Fever may be an indicator that the infection has affected the kidneys or possibly prostate,
- Other symptoms and kidney infections include back pain or in the area below the ribs, nausea, or vomiting.
The diagnosis is made using laboratory tests and by the typical symptoms that the patient describes. Through the lab, there is an analysis of urine and urine culture. It is done by taking the first-morning urine (after washing with plain water, without soap), avoiding the first jet, and causing the middle jet to be sterile. It should not be forgotten that you take a urine sample no later than 30-45 minutes at the laboratory, or keep it on the lower shelf of the refrigerator.
The initial treatment of the first episode of the infection is empirical because the microorganism is the cause of Escherichia coli. Usually, short-term therapies to antibiotics are very successful.
Therefore, it is necessary to start treatment immediately after the onset of symptoms. Because in case of failure, they can relatively quickly become complicated infections that require hospital treatment.
Treatment for three days has an advantage over one-time dosing and about 7-day therapy.
Longer Therapy is proposed for:
- Men:7 – 10 days – diabetics
- Pregnant women: – 10-14 days
- start the therapy immediately empirically, so it is correct to get the findings of the urinary culture
- fluoroquinolones are not safe during pregnancy
- Cotrimoxazole is not desirable to give in pregnancy, but possible in some cases if the symptoms are present for more than seven days, or if there is a complication.
Procedure in case of reinfection
Reinfection is diagnosed after it has been established that the recurrence of the infection was caused by a different microorganism than the one that caused the previous one, at different times, after the treatment of the previous one was completed.
– Usually, the gap between the two episodes is at least 4 to 8 weeks, and the patient is asymptomatic at the end of each treatment with antibiotics.
– Because microbiological cultures cannot be adequately interpreted without urine analysis (e.g., specific severity and the presence of pyuria), this test should be done each time a bacteriological culture is identified to identify the new organism and establish its antibiotic sensitivity profile.
– Short-term therapy of three days can be prescribed for each episode.
– Repeated examinations and microbiological tests do not have to be performed after each treatment unless the symptoms disappear or are repeated even after treatment with antibiotics (e.g., within four weeks).
Recommendations and Prevention
- Take plenty of fluids
Bacteria can develop in concentrated urine. If you are susceptible to infection, drink plenty of fluids, about a liter of water per day. This way the urine will remain diluted, and the system will rinse. Although acidic drinks such as cranberry juice may exacerbate the existing infection. By consuming them at a time when you are healthy, you can prevent the recurrence of problems because they prevent the adherence of bacteria to the mucous membrane of the urinary tract. It is recommended to take some tea.
- Proper hygiene
To protect the urinary channel from the bacteria around the anus, women, and girls should always be swept from forward to back. Ordinary water washes your genitals once a day as before and after sex. To avoid the development of bacteria in menstrual blood, regularly change the tampons and cartridges. Showering is much better than swimming in a bath, as bacteria can spread in water.
- Adapt sex life.
Wash before and after a sexual relationship and ask your partner to do the same. By mumming, after sex, you will help to bacteria from the body. Women using the diaphragm are prone to urinary tract infections because it is difficult to keep the diaphragm clean, which can lead to irritation of the urethra.
- Avoid perfumed products
Avoid perfumed soaps, powders, deodorants, baths, bath foams, tampons, condoms, toilet paper, even clothes with fragments of perfumed powder for the laundry or softener. These products can cause an allergic reaction and irritate the area around the bladder, thereby making it more susceptible to infections.
- Be healthy
Tension, fatigue, and poor nutrition can reduce your resistance to infection. It is important to properly feed, rest, and find a way to alleviate stressful situations.